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SPREAD works in the Koraput districts of the Orissa and focuses on the issue of development of tribal population. In early stages of intervention, the project team tried to understand the problems of the displaced tribal community of Koraput, who were alienated from their source of livelihood (due to loss of land and common property) to make way for a major hydro-electric project, Damanjodi by NALCO. With the insights gained from this intervention, the organization expanded its work to the displaced communities of two other projects, Kolab and Machhkund. Mr. Bidyut Mohanty, the Project Holder has been working in the development sector for the last 15 years on the issues of gender, participatory approach, advocacy and Programme Monitoring and Evaluation. He started work with Dalit children of slums in Bhubaneswar and has been associated with ‘Agragami’ on the issues of tribals. Along with some of his friends, Bidyut formed Society for Promotion of Rural Education and Development (SPREAD) in 1989, to work for the betterment of the underprivileged section of the society.


Koraput district is located in the backward Koraput – Bolangir – Kalahandi (KBK) region of Orissa. The district has 49.73% scheduled tribes and 13.07% scheduled castes population as per 2001 census. Total population of the operational area is 2605, composed of 639 families; of which 61% are SCs, 20% are STs and 19% are OBCs. PDS and other social security schemes are defunct. Tribal communities have little or no political rights. Gadaba and Paroja are the two resident tribes of the area and they are in majority. Two other castes Domba and Rona are also economically growing community in the society. The tribal of Koraput are practicing the shifting cultivation in the region which is known as PODU cultivation. There is high incidence of drop-outs and never gone school children due to economic pressure in the families. Children are involved in household, agriculture and animal husbandry work. Unilateral education system in terms of same language and contents for all communities has created some discomfort among the tribal children to continue in the education system. Secondly tribal communities are unable to link this education process with their own way of livelihood for survival. Government is lacking in giving the due intention for promoting the tribal child education as per the need of the community. Repeated displacement from one place to another is another area of concern and there is no facilitation process from Government to mainstream those children in school once again.


  • To promote awareness within community regarding national development in its economic, political and socio-cultural aspects.
  • To generate new and organic knowledge through intensive field work. This would help generation of data essential for evaluation and correction of development policies and programme and in extending the areas of academic analysis into hitherto neglected sectors.
  • To promote awareness among men and women to counter the social evils like untouchability, casteism, dowry, bride burning, drug abuse prevention, prohibition etc.
  • To render services to make downtrodden, particularly SC/ST people and under privileged section, group a strong strata.
  • To analyze and evaluate the programme and policies implemented earlier for human development for a better and more accurate result.

Review and Impact

SPREAD is working in the backward villages of Koraput district in Orissa with focus on issue of development of displaced tribal communities. Since inception they have been addressing livelihood issues for these communities to ensure overall development for them and their children.
The major programs taken up by SPREAD are:
  • Facilitating monitoring process of the services availed through the social security programs.
  • Ensure effective implementation of the basic facilities.
  • Enrolment drive in form of Campaign, sharing collected contents of the tribal cultural heritage and rituals with children through education system.
  • 59 birth certificates were issued for new born children in 12 intervention villages.
  • DAS and community is tracking food security schemes on regular basis in 12 villages.
  • 193 beneficiaries from 6 operational villages applied job under MNREGA and got 3320 man days work.
  • 9 villages are managing their own grain bank at the village level.
  • 12 (Boys-08 and Girls-04) drop out children were mainstreamed to formal schooling.
  • Mid day meal functioning in 06 schools regularly through the effort of village women’s group.
  • DAS has carried process for applying land entitlements under FRA. 480 community members have applied under the FRA.


  • • Regular weight tracking of 408 children in 12 project villages for identification of actual health status and there on ensuring their deserved entitlements under ICDS.
  • • Ensure at least 91 families in 2 project villages get 50 days work under MNREGA.
  • • To ensure inclusion of 108 excluded families from the BPL list during the new BPL survey.
  • • Ensuring proper prescribed pre-school and cooked food distribution services in 7 Anganwadi Centres in the project area.
  • • Documentation of the traditional agricultural practices of tribals for promoting diminishing tribal culture.
  • • Developing one of the primary school in Bangurpada village as model school having :
  • • 100% enrolment and retention from the catchment villages.
  • • Regular monitoring on quality of Mid Day Meal in government schools.
  • • Activation of student committees and ensure their involvement in monitoring of basic sanitation facilities in school .
  • • Regular follow up for ensuring quality education in schools of the project area.


  • Right to Development
  • Right to Survival
  • Right to Protection
  • Right to Participation
  • Administration
  • Total Grant Approved